Is a game between two teams, each usually having six players, who wear skates and compete on an ice rink. The object is to propel a vulcanized rubber disk, the puck, past a goal line and into a net guarded by a goaltender, or goalie. With its speed and its frequent physical contact, ice hockey has become one of the most popular of international sports. The game is an Olympic sport, and worldwide there are more than a million registered players performing regularly in leagues. It is perhaps Canada’s most popular game.



Until the mid-1980s it was generally accepted that ice hockey derived from English field hockey and Indian lacrosse and was spread throughout Canada by British soldiers in the mid-1800s. Research then turned up mention of a hockeylike game, played in the early 1800s in Nova Scotia by the Mi’kmaq (Micmac) Indians, which appeared to have been heavily influenced by the Irish game of hurling; it included the use of a “hurley” (stick) and a square wooden block instead of a ball. It was probably fundamentally this game that spread throughout Canada via Scottish and Irish immigrants and the British army. The players adopted elements of field hockey, such as the “bully” (later the face-off) and “shinning” (hitting one’s opponent on the shins with the stick or playing with the stick on one “shin” or side); this evolved into an informal ice game later known as shinny or shinty.




The National Hockey Association (NHA), the forerunner of the National Hockey League (NHL), was organized in 1910 and became the strongest hockey association in North America. Rising interest in the game created problems, however, for there were few artificial-ice rinks. In 1911 the Pacific Coast Hockey Association (PCHA) was formed by Joseph Patrick and his sons, who built two enclosed artificial-ice arenas, beginning a boom in the construction of artificial-ice rinks.

The PCHA became involved in a money and player war with the NHA. Although the NHA ultimately emerged as the stronger league, it was the PCHA that introduced many of the changes that improved the game. The only radical rule change adopted by the NHA was to reduce the number of players on a side to six, and that move was made to save money. The western league retained seven-man hockey, but it allowed the goalie to leap or dive to stop the puck. Under the previous rules, a goalie had had to remain stationary when making a save. The western league also changed the offside rule. Under the old rules, a player had been deemed offside if he was ahead of the puck carrier when he received a pass. The PCHA divided the ice into three zones by painting two blue lines across the surface and allowed forward passing in the centre zone between the blue lines. This opened up the game and made it more exciting. Another innovation in the western league was the idea of the assist. Previously, only the goal scorer had been credited with a point. In the PCHA the player or players who set up his goal were credited with an assist. The first numbered uniforms also appeared in their league.

American Football

The National Football League got underway in 1920 when it was known as the American Professional Football Association and began with 11 teams. Despite only 4 teams being able to finish the season the league kept going and continued to expand and contract wildly over that first decade. In 1922, the APFA was re-named as the National Football League.

Only a few franchises from those early seasons still exist today, the Chicago (now Arizona) Cardinals and Decatur Staleys (now Chicago Bears) were both teams in that inaugural season, the Green Bay Packers joined the APFA for their sophmore season in 1921. The New York Giants are the only other current-day franchise to particiate in that first decade, joining in 1925.

In 1966 the NFL announced they had reached a merger deal with the competing American Football League which would also establish a single “World’s Championship Game” which would later officially be known as the Super Bowl. In 1970, the NFL and AFL completed their merger with the AFL teams forming the new American Football Conference and the existing NFL teams going to the National Football Conference.


Rules in American Football

It’s 11 on 11.

The ball is placed on the field and the offense lines up across an imaginary line. The defense is on the other side of this “line of scrimmage.”

When the offense is ready they snap the ball to the quarterback (guy who throws). From there the object of the game is to advance the ball forward by running or throwing.

The offense is made up of blockers, receivers, running backs, and quarterbacks. The blockers (offensive lineman) prevent the defense from rushing forward and tackling the ball carrier. The receivers (wide receiver and tight end) sometimes block defensive backs but usually run specific patterns (routes) while waiting for the quarterback to throw the ball. The running backs are handed the ball and run forward usually through holes created by the offensive lineman. The quarterback handles every snap and either gives it to the running back or throws it to a receiver.

The defense is made up of defensive lineman, linebackers, and defensive backs. The defensive lineman run forward trying to get past the offensive lineman and tackle whoever has the ball (quarterback or running back). The linebackers have different options of either running forward at the line to tackle the ball carrier or drop back and try to cover a receiver (usually a tight end). The defensive backs (corner and safety) are responsible for preventing the receivers from catching the ball and occasionally to sneak into the backfield and tackle the ball carrier.

Offsides is either when the offensive lineman move even a muscle when they are lined up to snap the ball or when the defense runs across the line of scrimmage before the ball is snapped.

Pass interference is when a defender prevents a receiver from moving down the field in an effort to catch the ball.  They have to stop the ball not the man.

Holding is when an offensive player physically grabs a defender preventing his movement. Offensive blockers can only get in the way and shove defenders back, no holding them.

A touchdown is when the offense either runs or throws the ball into the end zone (area at the end of the 100 yard field) earning 6 points. A field goal is when the offense kicks the ball between the goal posts earning 3 points.


How do you become a professional Soccer Player?

Most of the answers I’ve seen don’t really provide any action steps and I get the sense that most players are a little discouraged in trying to get started.

If you aren’t in a professional academy or a top player in your area it can be complicated trying to break into the market. You most likely have no idea where to start. On top of that, the simple avenues available to you could be expensive and even a complete waste of your time.

So with that in mind I’d like to offer up a few guidelines that should save you some time and money.

We suggest that you try a open try out.

Because you ‘ll be competing with up to 200 other players for the attention of 3 coaches. If you stand out, great, if not, forget about your registration fee, food, travel and hotel money; that’s all gone now.  By the way your registration fee can be anywhere from $150 to $1,000. I could go on and on about the way that these are set up just to make money. But I don’t want to discourage anyone from going if you have the means to do so. Players have earned contracts doing this. It is DEFINITELY possible. However, the odds are stacked against you.


But why do you want to become a professional Soccer player?

If you are in it for the money we suggest that you dont do it, Soccer is all about passion and if you dont have passion for the game you are playing we can allmost garantuee you that you wont become a professional Soccer player. It takes allot of times and we have seen a study where it takes around 10 000 hours to become the best on something. Do you have 10 000 hours that you want to spare to become a Soccer pro? If you have that go for it, if not choose another line of life style.